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The History of Kashmir Every Indian Must Know Before Starting a Discussion on Kashmir

A timeline of the sequence of events that went down into the history of Kashmir:

Year 1834

Gulab Singh(founder of the Dogra dynasty) included Ladakh in his own province in 1834 with the implied consent of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and East India Company.

16 March 1846-Treaty of Amritsar

In this treaty the British government transferred for ever an independent possession of some of the ceded areas, including Kashmir to Gulab Singh. With this the state of J&K comes into being.


At the time of commencement of Dogra rule, the conditions in Kashmir were deplorable. Baron Schonberg, who traveled the valley at that time, observed, “I have been in many lands but nowhere the conditions of human beings present a more saddening spectacle than in Kashmir. It vividly recalled the history of Israelites under the Egyptian rule, when they were flogged at their daily labour by their pitiless task masters.”


For the first time in the history of Kashmir people openly opposed the oppression from the dogra rulers. Same year July 13, twenty one (21) Kashmiri Muslims fell to the bullets of tyrannical soldiers outside Srinagar central jail.


Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah and Mirwaiz Mohammed Yosuf Shah form the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference.


Muslim Conference is formally dissolved and Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah sets up the J&K National Conference (NC).


National Conference launches the Quit Kashmir movement, directed at the abrogation of the Treaty of Amritsar. Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah is arrested.


In August when Indian became independent, all the rulers of 565 princely states had to decide whether to join India or Pakistan?

Maharaja Hari Singh decided to stay independent because he expected that the State’s Muslims who were in majority would be unhappy with accession to India, and the Hindus and Sikhs would become vulnerable if he joined Pakistan.

Aug-Oct 1947 Ehenic clensing of muslims

One million Kashmiri Muslim refugees were uprooted and an estimated 3-4 lakh were massacred in the Jammu region alone by the the Hindu Dogra ruler Hari Singh.His main aim was to change the demographic composition of the region by eliminating the Muslim population, fearing that the referendum with go in favour of majority i.e muslims.The Dogra State troops were at the forefront of attacks on Muslims. The State authorities were also issuing arms not only to local volunteer organizations such as the RSS, but also to those in surrounding East Punjab districts such as Gurdaspur.

22 Oct 1947 Invasion of Kashmir by Pathan tribesmen

Pashtun tribesmen from Pakistan’s North West Frontier Province invaded Kashmir, fearing communal violence against Muslims in the state, they took control of most of the western parts of the State by 22 October. On 24 October, they formed a provisional Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir) government.

26 Oct 1947

Maharaja’s troops, heavily outnumbered and outgunned, had no chance of withstanding the attack. The Maharaja made an urgent plea to Delhi for military assistance. Upon the Governor General Lord Mountbatten’s insistence, India required the Maharaja to accede before it could send troops. Accordingly, the Maharaja signed an instrument of accession on 26 October 1947, which was accepted by the Governor General the next day. While the Government of India accepted the accession, it added the provision that it would be submitted to a “reference to the people” after the state is cleared of the invaders, since “only the people, not the Maharaja, could decide where Kashmiris wanted to live. On the morning of October 27, Indian troops were airlifted in to Srinagar to repel Pakistani’s raiders.

On the basis of Maharaja’s “accession” India claims ownership of the entire State which includes the approximately one third of the territory currently administered by Pakistan.

Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah is appointed head of the Emergency Administration.


India takes the Kashmir problem to the United Nations Security Council on January 1 and offers to hold a plebiscite under UN supervision, after the raiders are moved back. On March 4, S M Abdullah was appointed Prime Minister of J&K with a Council of ministers. On August 13, a UN commission proposes that the State’s future be decided in accordance with the will of people. On December 20, Pakistan also accepts the UN resolution.


A ceasefire between Indian and Pakistani forces leaves 84,000 under Pakistani control. On October 17, Indian constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the constitution, ensuring a special status for J&K.


On March 14 UN Security Council decided to appoint a representative of the commission to carry out its work. Sir Owen Dixon was given this assignment and according to his Dixon plan he suggested,

  1. Jammu ceding to India.
  2. Kashmir ceding to pak.
  3. Ladakh be given a referendum.

The ‘Dixon Plan’ was rejected both by India and Pakistan.


An interim constitution for the state comes into effect in November.


An agreement is arrived at on July 24 between Sheikh Abdullah and Government of India which provides for the states autonomy within India. This agreement made provision for the state like J&K to have its own flag.


The New York Times in its July 5 issue published a map hinting at the independent status of the valley. On July 13 Sheikh commented that, “It is not necessary that our state should become an appendage of either India or Pakistan.” On August 9, Sheikh Abdullah is dismissed and arrested. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed becomes the Prime Minister. The governments of India and Pakistan agree to appoint a plebiscite administrator by the end of April 1954.


India and Pakistan go to war, after armed Pakistani infiltrators cross the ceasefire line on August 5, and the international border in Chamb in September. The war ends in a ceasefire on September 23. The denominations ‘Prime Minister’ and ‘Sadr e Riyasat’ are changed to ‘Chief Minister’ and ‘Governor’ respectively through an amendment of the J&K constitution with effect from May 30 1965. Prime Minister G M Sadiq becomes Chief Minister.


Sheikh Abdullah sworn in as chief minister on Feb 25, with support of Congress Legistature Party.


Sheikh Abdullah nominates his son Farooq as his political heir


Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah dies on Sept 8. Farooq Abdullah Sworn in as the chief minister.


Relations between Farooq and Mrs Indira Gandhi worsened as former kept association with the opposition parties and invited them to a conclave in Srinagar within months of becoming chief minister. Three bomb explosions in Srinagar.


Indian authorities hang to death Maqbool Bhat, founder member of Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) on February 11.


Shah government dismissed on March 7. By November Farooq is back in power after coming to an agreement with Rajiv Gandhi.

1987 Election rigging

The Muslim United Front comes into being in January when various organizations come together to oppose the National Conference-Congress electoral alliance. Farooq wins elections in March but faces allegations of rigging.


Protests continue in valley along with anti India demonstrations against the rigging. At least 10 people are killed and curfew is placed in the valley in August.


JKLF emerges with the call of independence. Violence begins with bomb explosions rocking the city. Rubaiya Sayeed, daughter of home minister of India, Mufti Mohammed Sayeed kidnapped by JKLF. On Dec 13, Rubaiya is released in exchange of 5 JKLF men, whose release from the prison results in victory celebrations in Srinagar. Two days later curfew is placed in the valley after 5 people are killed in police firing.


Farooq Abdullah resigns. On Jan 20 around 100 people are killed (official figure 35) when protestors seeking freedom from Indian occupation are fired upon from both sides of Gawkadal bridge in Srinagar. In March mass exodus of Kashmiri Pandits takes place.

1991: May 21, Mirwaiz Molvi Mohammed Farooq assassinated. The violence continues.

Same year February 23, 1991,the Kunan Poshspora incident occurred, when units of the Indian army launched a search and interrogation operation in the village of Kunan Poshpora, located in Kashmir’s remote Kupwara District. At least 43 women were gang raped by soldiers that night. However, Human Rights organizations including Human Rights Watch have reported that the number of raped women could be as high as 100.


Jan 26, BJP Ekta Yatra is allowed to hoist the Indian flag in Lal chowk, under total curfew and massive security. Jammu and Kashmir Hizbul Mujahideen (JKHM) which strives for merger of J&K with Pakistan increases its strength dramatically. Differences arise between JKHM and JKLF. Other militant organizations proliferate. Allegations of human rights violations by the Indian soldiers increase.


In Jan 40 people are killed in Sopore by Indian soldiers who burn down a section of the town after two of their men are killed. In April state policemen go on strike after a constable Riyaz Ahmed is killed in army custody. Killing continues.


In May, India conducts underground nuclear tests near the Pakistani border which are met by international condemnation. Pakistan conducts similar tests three weeks later.

1999 Kargil war

The Indian Army patrols detect intruders on Kargil ridges in Kashmir and India fights to regain lost territory. Two months later Pakistani and Indian military officials agree to end the fighting in the region and disengage their forces.

Human rights abuses in the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir state are an ongoing issue. The abuses range from mass civilian killings, enforced disappearances, custodial killings, fake encounters, unmarked mass graves, torture, rape and sexual abuse to political repression and suppression of freedom of speech. Till now, not a single member of the security forces deployed in the state has been tried for human rights violations in a civilian court. This lack of accountability has in turn facilitated other serious abuses.

The rest of the story is quite well known to everyone. Open your minds and educate yourselves



I’m Liah Qureshi ( My real name is Irtiqa Qureshi, I go with Liah as my pen name). Im a girl in my 20 somethings, trying my bit to make this world a better place to live in. I am a Journalist and a stick-to-radio person. I write sometimes when I think my writings can make some productive change. Apart from being a Journo and a radio freak, I work as a freelance Voice Artist, a Counselor, a Blogger, a YouTuber (this happens just sometimes and that too randomly plus i don't have a fan base or something like that on YouTube :P ), Social Activist and an Emcee too (all on an individual level). I love to study Psychology in my free time(If ever I get some). And I am Loving my Life. You can Check out my Social Media links given on this page.

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